Thursday, January 31, 2013

Playing for Education

So I am sitting here writing a paper for one of my classes, listening to music (like I always do, because I love music) and I just got a really innovative idea for a potential music project in my school!

I'm currently listening to the album "Playing for Change" where songs were created from recording separate, individual, musical tracks with either one voice and/or one instrument from around the world, in order to produce a complete song.  This movement eventually turned into producing entire albums that have truly innovated the music industry.

"Playing for Change is a multimedia movement created to inspire, connect, and bring peace to the world through music. The idea for this project arose from a common belief that music has the power to break down boundaries and overcome distances between people. No matter whether people come from different geographic, political, economic, spiritual or ideological backgrounds, music has the universal power to transcend and unite us as one human race. And with this truth firmly fixed in our minds, we set out to share it with the world." - Source

So I thought, we should be doing this project with our students!  So, I am taking the initiative (along with the music department at my middle school) to get this project rolling.

We would first test this project in a small scale, by individually recording our students singing and playing their musical instruments into GarageBand.  Then we would have our students edit their individual music tracks and splice them together to make an entire song composed from all of the separately recorded tracks.  Much like the music industry does today.  That would be cool! 

But even cooler, would be for my school to reach out to other schools across America, and around the world via social networking to see if we could pull off the same type of "Playing for Change" project.

What if ... we were able to collaborate with students from different cities, countries, and continents in order to produce a song created from separate recordings from around the world?  Better yet, what if we were able to produce an entire album?

So, here's how it works.  Each participating school would record their students singing and/or playing musical instruments (native to their geographical region) to create a single music track.  Then, each participating school would digitally share those tracks via the Internet to all other participating schools.  Finally, each school would have the opportunity to create an authentic song using GarageBand from all of the musical tracks that were recorded and shared from the participating schools around the world. 

By simply reaching out on Twitter, and sharing this blog post, I think we could get a lot of people involved on this.  We might even be able to create some Google Hangouts with other participating schools to discuss the process and decide on a meaningful song using a specific tempo and key. Call me crazy, but I really think our school can pull this off, and it would be such an amazing project. 

Not only would this process teach our students about cultural awareness, citizenship, and world music, but it would also teach them about global collaboration and technology integration from splicing all the individual music tracks together to produce a song in GarageBand.  Therefore, I call this project, Playing For Education.

If you are interested in participating in this idea, or think you may know someone who might be interested, please share this blog post with them and have them reach out to me @MrLands.

Apple's Role in My Landscape of Learning

Apple’s symbolism and its products have significantly helped me transform into the educator that I am today.

Steve jobs believed that Apple is about people who think outside the box, who want to use computers to help them change the world.  That’s what I think every time I see the Apple logo.  Creativity and innovation. Art and technology. Design and empathy.  That simple Apple logo brings so much meaning and power to education and it truly inspires me to become a better educator.

Apple technologies have helped me to “think differently” about education.  Thanks to Apple, I always think about how I design and market everything that I do as an educator.  The skills of design and marketing have never been more important than they are today. In his new book, To Sell is Human, Daniel Pink suggests that we are all in sales now, "Whether we’re employees pitching colleagues on a new idea, entrepreneurs enticing funders to invest, or parents and teachers cajoling children to study, we spend our days trying to move others. Like it or not, we’re all in sales now".

In a world where resources are equally accessible, one must be able to create an innovative design and be able to “market” that design in order to be successful.  Apple reminds me of this.  Whenever I am faced with a challenge as an educator, I often ask myself, “What would Apple do?”  Then I remind myself to think creatively, keep it simple, and make it appealing.

I apply these same product design features and marketing strategies that Apple uses when leading professional development and creating lesson plans.  For example, as an Instructional Technology Coach, I often lead professional development for my staff to show them how to use Apple products and how to integrate them into their teaching practice.  I feel that it is my responsibility to get them excited, inspired, and motivated to want to use these devices with their students.  Therefore, during my presentations and training sessions, I try to design creative presentations and training sessions to get them excited about using the devices.

Similarly, I also use this strategy when creating lesson plans for my students.  Apple has indirectly taught me to always start off with a “hook” that sparks curiosity and inquiry in my students.  This is how real learning takes place.  I consistently try to find creative ways to spark interest in my students to get them excited about learning.

Apple products have also helped me with my transformation in education. Apple has developed innovative tools that have allowed me to learn more efficiently and teach more effectively.  Firstly, Apple has created mobile devices such as the iPod, iPad and Macbook that have empowered me to take my inquiry and creativity with me anywhere, anytime.  With these mobile devices, I have been able to research a topic, share multimedia, or create a presentation on multiple devices, with multiple people.

Secondly, Apple software such as iMovie, GarageBand, and Keynote have allowed me to be creative, to express myself, and to make meaningful projects. These tools have allowed me to make presentations, create demonstrations, and synthesize my own learning and understanding.  Now with the ability to download apps on all of these mobile devices, the possibilities of learning and sharing are limitless.

Although, it wasn't until I put these devices in the hands of my teachers and students that my learning environment truly transformed.  Using these products for my own personal gain was transformational, but not nearly as transformational as empowering my students and teachers to use these products to help them transform their own learning.  My learning environment now consists of learning and sharing with teachers and students on multiple devices, on multiple levels, thanks to Apple.

*Note:  The video featured in this blog post is my "pseudo-interview" with an Apple representative about how Apple technologies can be used in education.  This was part of a project that I was working on for my Apple Distinguished Educator application.

Wednesday, January 23, 2013

Extreme Makeover: School Edition

Idea and Image created by Bradley Lands 1/23/13
Twenty-First Century schools need more than just a face lift. Yes, we need to remodel the "traditional" style classrooms where student desks are aligned in perfect columns and rows directly pointed toward the teacher. Yes, we need to create safe and collaborative spaces that are both conducive to learning and are aesthetically pleasing. But our schools need much more than this. What I'm talking about, is an Extreme Makeover from the ground up!

I would like to introduce three initiatives that I think (and are research supported) could substantially transform our schools into institutions that are in the best interest of our students and actually prepare them for their future in this rapidly changing, unpredictable world.  This blog post is my attempt to briefly scratch the surface of this challenging (but totally possible) endeavor.

  1. Establish a Positive School Culture 
  2. Encourage Intrinsic, Student Motivation 
  3. Integrate 21st Century Workplace Readiness Skills

1.  Establish a Positive School Culture

“School culture is the set of norms, values, and beliefs, situations and ceremonies, symbols and stories that make up the “persona” of the school.”[4]  But cultural change must be achieved--and it must be achieved well--if we are to prepare our current and future generations of students for an ever-changing world that is becoming more demanding each day."[4]

Create a vision and mission: Building a shared vision is the ongoing, never-ending, daily challenge confronting all those who hope to transform their schools into learning communities.[1]  And until educators can describe the ideal school they are trying to create, it is impossible to develop policies, procedures, or programs that will help make that ideal a reality.[1]  Each learning institution should ask itself, "What is it we expect our students to learn, and how will we fulfill our collective responsibility to ensure that this learning takes place for all of our students?”[1]  Furthermore, all valued stakeholders should be involved in establishing the vision for their institution, and should be committed to implementing it.

Establish a Professional Learning Community: A “professional learning community” is a place where teachers inquire together into how to improve their practice in areas of importance to them, and then implement what they learned to make it happen.[3] This "place" can be in a classroom, in a school building, or somewhere in the midst of our online, social media universe.  Regardless of the space, it is imperative that educators create some type of learning community where they can learn, share and grow together, because "all of us, are smarter than any one of us".

Maintain support and accountability: Leaders in education must transparently communicate purpose, foster collaboration, build capacity in his or her staff, hold people accountable, and provide support and accountability when needed.[4]  This same support and accountability should also be instilled in our students to ensure learning and understanding by all students, at high levels.

2.  Encourage Intrinsic Student Motivation 

"People use extrinsic rewards expecting to gain the benefit of increasing another person's motivation and behavior, but in doing so, they often incur the unintentional and hidden cost of undermining that person's intrinsic motivation toward the activity."[6]

Student Inquiry: Inquiry-based teaching has been found to have a significant impact on student learning. Students should be engaged in making observations, formulating then asking questions, analyzing evidence, evaluating data, formulating explanations, connecting their explanations with scientific concepts, and communicating the justification for their explanations in all content areas.[7] Consequently, when students engage in these actions, their learning becomes more personalized and meaningful to them, which in turn allows them to gain a deeper level of conceptualization and understanding.

Student Autonomy: Students need the opportunity to have voice and choice in their learning by identifying their learner profile. "A student’s learning style, intelligence preference, gender, and culture can influence learning profile."[8] Not only does this strategy increase student engagement, but it also helps individual learners understand modes of learning that work best for them, and to offer those options so that each learner finds a good learning fit in the classroom.  This ultimately differentiates and personalizes the learning for each individual student.

Meaningful Feedback: Consider non-tangible rewards. "Praise and positive feedback are much less corrosive than cash and trophies."[6] Provide useful information. "The more feedback focuses on specifics ("Great use of color")--and the more the praise is about effort and strategy rather than about achieving a particular outcome--the more effective it can be."[6]

3.  Integrate 21st Century Workplace Readiness Skills 

"Companies are seeking employees who have academic skills, common sense, and social skills, and if they have to recruit overseas to accomplish this, they are willing to do so. Nations like India and China are providing workers who have the kind of skills that companies want, and they are increasing their recruitment efforts globally in order to fill this need."[2]

Creativity, Critical Thinking, Communication, Collaboration: "We are moving from an economy and a society built on the logical, linear, computer-like capabilities of the Information Age to an economy and a society built on the inventive, empathic, big-picture capabilities of what's rising in its place, the Conceptual Age."[5]  The arrival of desktop PCs and the automation of business processes, they say, have heightened the value of two categories of human skills. The first is what they call “expert thinking--solving new problems for which there are no routine solutions.” The other is “complex communication--persuading, explaining, and in other ways conveying a particular interpretation of information.”[5] Thus, moving forward in the 21st Century, these particular skills will be more important than ever for our students to master in order to remain competitive in the global economy.

Arts Integration: "Ten years of employment data and discovered that the largest gains have been in jobs that require people skills and emotional intelligence, imagination, and creativity."[5]  The abilities our students will need--Design, Story, Symphony, Empathy, Play, and Meaning--are fundamentally human attributes, which is why integrating "The Arts" is so important. Visual and performing arts such as music, theater, dance and art help to develop the type skills needed for tomorrow. Most surprisingly, "A master of fine arts, an MFA, is now one of the hottest credentials in a world where even General Motors is in the art business. MFA is the new MBA."[5]

Science Technology Engineering and Mathematics (STEM): STEM education has never been as important for U.S. students as it is today. Compared with other students around the world, U.S. students are particularly falling behind in math and science. As a result, fewer students are graduating college with math and science degrees and thus, failing to fill math and science positions in the workforce. Simultaneously, as the U.S. demand for technology increases exponentially, the supply of innovators steadily decreases, jeopardizing our economy, environment, and national security. Moreover, "Foreign competition, especially in the area of technology and science, has increased substantially. As corporations struggle to find educated and skilled workers, they are looking to the shores of foreign nations more and more."[2]

Our Action Plan

Let's start with things that are in our control as educators.  Let's start by making an "Extreme Makeover" in our classrooms, in our schools, in our districts.  If we all play our roles and we all do "our" part, then we will have successfully transformed our learning institutions to prepare our students, for their future!

You might also like

I Think We Have Education Backwards, Don't You?
Don't Get Caught with an Open Container Violation
Let's Plant the Seed of Learning in Our Students
It's Time to Shift or Get Off the Pot

  1. Dufour, R. & Eaker, R. (1998). Professional learning communities at work. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.
  2. Friedman, T. L. (2005). The world is flat: a brief history of the twenty-first century. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.
  3. Hargreaves, Andy, and Michael Fullan. Professional capital: transforming teaching in every school. New York: Teachers College Press, 2012. Print.
  4. Muhammad, A., & Dufour, R. (2009). Transforming school culture: how to overcome staff division. Bloomington, IN: Solution Tree Press.
  5. Pink, D. H. (2006). A whole new mind: why right-brainers will rule the future. New York: Riverhead Books.
  6. Pink, D. H. (2009). Drive: the surprising truth about what motivates us. New York, NY: Riverhead Books.
  7. Sheninger, E. C., & Devereaux, K. (2012). What principals need to know about teaching and learning science (2nd ed.). Bloomington, IN: Solution Tree Press.
  8. Tomlinson, C. A. (2001). How to differentiate instruction in mixed-ability classrooms. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development (ASCD).

Sunday, January 20, 2013

There is More than One Way to Demonstrate Mastery

Daniel Pink has helped me to realize that students today need to be intrinsically motivated to learn.  One way to increase intrinsic motivation is to allow for student autonomy in education.  We as educators should be empowering our students to have voice and choice over how they learn, and how they demonstrate their learning.

In this post, I have included multiple types of creative assessments that allow students to demonstrate mastery not only in content, but also in workplace readiness skills such as critical thinking, creativity, communication, and collaboration.  Just about all of these creative assessments can both accommodate to an individual learner, or a group of learners to help encourage communication and collaboration.  Moreover, having students "present" their demonstrations allow them to work on their communication skills such as "public speaking" and "listening" from participating as audience members and asking insightful, meaningful questions after the demonstrations have been presented.

Furthermore, there are multiple mediums to which students can create any one of these demonstrations.  To create these demonstrations, students can use anything from paper and pencil, to the latest and best technology apps and tools.  In addition, these assessments provide natural differentiated learning opportunities for students by empowering them to choose their preferred learning style, interest and strengths in order to demonstrate mastery. Even better is the fact that a lot of these assessments directly align to the multiple intelligences.

Below is a list of creative assessments that might be used for students to demonstrate mastery.

  • Create a story from a picture
  • Create a story from a title
  • Create a title from a picture
  • Create a title from a story
  • Create a sculpture
  • Create an image of a concept or theme
  • Respond to a real world writing prompt
  • Design a webpage
  • Write a poem or song
  • Create a skit
  • Create a video
  • Create a photo voice by taking pictures
  • Ask complex questions rather than answering them
  • Create a graphic organizer
  • Write a newspaper article
  • Write a journal entry
  • Create a comic
  • Create a digital story
  • Create a photo story
  • Create a "Fakebook" page
  • Create a blog from the perspective of a historical figure
  • Analyze a primary source photo or document
  • Argue a position and defend it
  • Conduct an experiment
  • Solve a problem
  • Design a product
  • Engineer a product
  • Mix and match any of these assessments

And this list just scratches the surface.  What else might you add to this list?

Your comments are welcomed and encouraged!

You might also like

There is More than One Way to Climb a Tree
Leveraging the Strengths of Our Students

What Distinguished Educators Do Differently

What do "Great" teachers do differently?  Todd Whitaker believes the following to be true ...

  • Great teachers never forget that it is people, not programs that determine the quality of a school.
  • Great teachers have high expectations for students, but have even higher expectations of themselves.
  • Great teachers know that they are the variable in the classroom.  Good teachers consistently strive to improve, and they focus on something they can control:  their own performance.
  • Great teachers focus on students first, with a broad vision that keeps everything in perspective.
  • Great teachers create a positive atmosphere in their classrooms and schools.  They treat every person with respect.  In particular, they understand the power of praise.
  • Great teachers have a plan and purpose for everything they do.  If plans don't work out the way they had envisioned, they reflect on what they could have done differently and adjust accordingly.
  • Great teachers have empathy for students and clarity about how others see them.
  • Great teachers keep standardized testing in perspective.  They focus on the real issue of student learning.
  • Great teachers care about their students.  They understand that behaviors and beliefs are tied to emotion, and they understand the power of emotion to jump-start change.

While all of these attributes are indeed great qualities to have in a teacher, I happen to disagree with Mr. Whitaker.  I believe that these are all "fundamentals of teaching".  I personally feel like these attributes that he describes are now the status quo of teaching.  I don't think any of these attributes are innovative enough to be considered "great" ... not anymore at least.

I want to create a list of what excellent teachers do differently.  What superb teachers do differently.  What distinguished teachers do differently?

I would imagine that continual learning, growing, and sharing as an educator would make that list.  I would also imagine that fostering student inquiry, creativity, motivation, and effort might also make the list.  Laslty, I would argue that building capacity in students' strengths, talents, interests, character, integrity, and autonomy might also make the list.

What might you add to this list of what distinguished educators do differently?

What Distinguished Educators do differently?

All comments are welcome!


Whitaker, T. (2004). What great teachers do differently: fourteen things that matter most. Larchmont, NY: Eye on Education.

Tuesday, January 15, 2013

Never Underestimate the Power of Social Networking

I was contacted last May by a woman who happened to stumble across my blog and website after performing some research on STEAM (Science, Technology, Engineering, Arts, Mathematics) which is basically integrating the arts into STEM.  She wrote me an email letting me know that she found my resources both valuable and useful and asked me if she could use my material for a presentation that she was leading for her staff.  Of course I allowed her to use my material and I encouraged her to do so.  I was ecstatic to discover that someone else was out there who truly valued my educational insight and wanted to collaborate with me.

Long story short, she contacted me again just last week.  It had been about 8 months since we had last exchanged emails and she reached out to me once again!  Her email to me reads below ...

Hi Brad,
It has been a little while since we have been in contact but a lot has happened since I first emailed about using you as a resource for our Professional Development day last May.  After initiating the implementation of technology in the arts, I was able to experience using a set of iPads in my classroom for the entire first semester of my classes and it was an amazing learning opportunity for my students as well as for me!  To make a long story short, I have very recently left the classroom and have begun a new journey as the eLearning Coordinator for our district.  I am very excited about the direction we are going and have already begun research and scheduled visits to amazing schools that have implemented online and blended learning.  As a newbie in this department, I am relying on any contacts that I have made in the past and you were the first to pop to mind!  I immediately admired your willingness to help me and was impressed by what you are doing in the classroom.  I would very much like to come and visit your class as I gather information about furthering our implementation of technology infusion as a district.  Let me know if that might be a possibility or if you know of another teacher/school in your area that could be of help.
I look forward to hearing from you!

What an awesome opportunity I thought to myself!  I emailed her back and happily invited her to come visit my school.  I was so excited to finally meet this person who reached out to me as a fellow educator.  Today at 11:00 a.m., she met me in my office and we exchanged "hellos" for the first time.

I gave her a tour of our school and showed her how we were integrating technology in our classes. I stopped by our CTE department where our students were working on "reverse engineering" projects in which they had to perform research and design to construct a product to be made out of Legos.  Then they had to create a set of instructions for another group to be able to construct their product. Students were using mobile devices for research and were using Google Sketchup to design a 3D model of their product.

Next, we stopped by a 7th grade classroom where I gave a demonstration on how to use the iMovie app on the iPad to help students create Public Service Announcements for a project that they were working on.  Each student had an iPad and had the opportunity to sandbox with iMovie after my demonstration.  Finally, we talked a bit more, shared some resources and innovative ideas and she was on her way.

After she left I thought to myself, "Wow!"  I actually met and collaborated with a complete stranger who just happened to share my passion and ambition in education ... all from social networking.  Never in a million years did I think that I would actually get to work with this woman in person who first emailed me a year ago.

My Reflection

This is such an amazing time to be an educator.  In an "open source" world, we are fortunate to have access to information, resources, and people ... for free!  We should take advantage of these resources by learning and sharing from each other, and not forget to contribute to the same "open source" world that we use to consume.  We as educators should be taking risks to learn, share, and connect with each other.  We are now shifting from a competitive learning environment, to a collaborative learning environment, and we should take full advantage of each other's knowledge and experience.  Each of us uniquely brings something different to the field of education and we should not be too timid, nor proud to share.  Because in the end, these are all of our students that we are teaching.  The same students that will be our future leaders.

Related Content

Why Do You Blog?

Thursday, January 10, 2013

Things I have learned from Steve Jobs

Picture Source:
I finally got around to reading the book, Steve Jobs by Walter Isaacson over winter break.  I was finally at a point in my life when I actually had time to read it.  I knew it was going to be epic, so I decided to take notes on my iPad while I read it.  This blog post is a compilation of all my favorite quotes from the book.  For those of you who won't get around to reading this daunting book of nearly 600 pages, I hope that you find this post to be valuable.

"Here's to the crazy ones. The misfits. The rebels. The troublemakers. The round pegs in the square holes. The ones who see things differently. They're not fond of rules. And they have no respect for the status quo. You can quote them, disagree with them, glorify or vilify them. About the only thing you can't do is ignore them. Because they change things. They push the human race forward. And while some may see them as the crazy ones, we see genius. Because the people who are crazy enough to think they can change the world are the ones who do." - Steve Jobs


"Polite and velvety leaders who take care to avoid bruising others are generally not as effective at forcing change. Dozens of the colleagues whom Jobs most abused ended their litany of horror stories by saying that he got them to do things they never dreamed possible. And he created a corporation crammed with A players."

"Some leaders push innovations by being good at the big picture. Others do so by mastering details. Jobs did both relentlessly. As a result he launched a series of products over three decades that transformed whole industries."

"I don't think I run roughshod over people, but if something sucks, I tell people to their face. It's my job to be honest. That's the culture I tried to create. We are brutally honest with each other. That's the ante for being in the room: You've got to be able to be super honest."

"If you act like you can do something, then it will work. Pretend to be completely in control and people will assume that you are."


"If you don't build your dreams, someone else will hire you to help build theirs."

"I have my own theory about why decline happens at companies like IBM or Microsoft. The company does a great job, innovates and becomes a monopoly or close to it in the field, and then the quality of the product becomes less important. The company starts valuing the great salesmen, because they're the ones who can move the needle on the revenues, not the product engineers and designers. So the sales people end up running the company."

"You should never start a company with the goal of getting rich. Your goal should be making something you believe in and making a company that will last."

"It reinforced my sense of what was important -- creating great things instead of making money, putting things back into the stream of history and of human consciousness as much as I could."

"A great company must be able to impute its values from the first impression that it makes."

"Either make something you can sell or go get a job."

"The stores would impute the ethos of Apple products: playful, easy, creative, and on the bright side of the line between hip and intimidating."

"Jobs was a strong believer in face-to-face meetings. There's a temptation in our network page to think that ideas can be developed by email and ichat. Thats crazy. Creativity comes from spontaneous meetings, from random discussions. You run into someone, you ask what they're doing, you say wow and soon your cooking up all sorts of ideas."

"My goal has always been not only to make great products, but to build great companies."

"What are the 5 products you want to focus on? Get rid of the rest because they're dragging you down."

"Competition among a variety of devices and manufacturers leads to greater consumer choice and more innovation."


"The reason Apple resonates with people is that there's a deep current of humanity in our innovation. I think great artists and great engineers are similar, in that they both have a desire to express themselves.

"In most people's vocabularies, design means veneer. But to me, nothing could be further from the meaning of design. Design is the fundamental soul of a man-made creation that ends up expressing itself in successive outer layers."

"If we are going to make things in our lives, we might as well make them beautiful."

"Real artists simplify"

"There should be no distinction between fine art and applied industrial design."

"Less is more"

"Simplicity is the ultimate sophistication"

"Why do we assume that simple is good? Because with physical products, we have to feel we can dominate them. As you bring order to complexity, you find a way to make the product defer to you."

"The main thing in our design is that we have to make things intuitively obvious."

"the iPod became the essence of everything Apple was destined to be: poetry connected to engineering, arts and creativity intersecting with technology, design that's bold and simple."

"Part of the reason we model our computers on metaphors like the desktop is that we can leverage this experience people already have."

"Great art stretches the taste, it doesn't follow tastes"

"When you're a carpenter making a beautiful chest of drawers, you're not going to use a piece of plywood on the back, even though it faces the wall and nobody will ever see it. You'll know it's there, so you're going to use a beautiful piece of wood on the back. For you to sleep well at night, the aesthetic, the quality, has to be carried all the way through."


"To create a new standard takes not just making something that's a little bit different, it takes something that's really new and captures people's imagination."

"Apple, Jobs considered his greatest creation a place where imagination was nurtured applied and executed in ways so creative that it became the most valuable company on earth."

"The best way to predict the future is to invent it."

"And he was able to infuse into its DNA the design sensibilities, perfectionism, and imagination that make it likely to be, even decades from now, the company that thrives best at the intersection of artistry and technology."

"My view is that people are creative animals and will figure out clever new ways to use tools that the inventor never imagined."

"It was designed to celebrate not what the computers could do, but what creative people could do with the computers."

"Asked if he wanted to do market research he said no because customers don't know what they want until we've shown them."

"Some people say, 'Give the customers what they want'. But that's not my approach. Our job is to figure out what they're going to want before they do. I think Henry Ford once said, 'If I'd asked customers what they wanted, they would have told me, A faster horse!' People don't know what they want until you show it to them. That's why I never rely on market research. Our task is to read things that are not yet on the page."

"Apple is about people who think outside the box, who want to use computers to help them change the world."


Isaacson, W. (2011). Steve Jobs. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster.